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初中英语短语归纳解析(八)

1. at/ in

初中英语短语归纳解析(八)

Ⅰ. at 和 in 都可用在地点名词前,用at 时是把该地方视为一点,用in时则是把该地方看成一个范围。如:

① Are your classmates playing in the park? 你的同学都在公园里玩吗?

② They are waiting for you at the park. 他们在公园附近(里面)等你。

Ⅱ. at; in & on 都可用在表时间的名词前。在点时间前用at; 在表某一天或某一天的某个段时间(morning, evening, day, night atc)名词前,用on; 在段时间名词前(星期;年;月;周等)用in.如:

① I’ll meet you at eight. 我们8:00 钟会面。

② See you on Monday morning. 星期一早上见。

③ The story happened in May.故事发生在5月份。

Ⅲ. 固定词组:如:in the morning ; at night.

2. at/ to

Ⅰ. at多表目的或目标,而to 则仅表方向。如:

① He threw the ball at me. 他对准我扔球。

② He threw the ball to me. 他朝着我这个方向扔球。

③ My father shouted at me.我父亲对我吼叫。

④ My father shouted to me. 我父亲朝着我喊叫。

3. a year and a half / one and a half years

这是英语中表示“多少半”的两种说法:

如:

① an hour and a half = one and a half hours. 一个半小时

② two kilos and a half = two and a half kilos 两公斤半。

4. awake/ wake/ waken

Ⅰ. awake “弄醒、叫醒、唤醒、醒来”与wake同意。引申意义为“觉醒、清醒”时,与awaken 同意。

① The noise awoke me. 喧闹声吵醒了我。

② But before long, the camel woke him.不久,骆驼就把他弄醒了。

③ I usually awake (wake) at six. 我通常六点钟醒来。

Ⅱ. wake 后往往跟up, awake 则不能; 而awake可作形容词,意为“醒着的”。如:

① Has he waked (up) yet? 他醒来了没有?

② Is he awake or asleep? 他醒着还是睡着?

Ⅲ. waken / awaken. 一般多用在被动语态中,意为“被叫醒、被弄醒”。如:

① I was awakened by the cry of the baby. 我被小孩的哭声惊醒了。

5. bank/ shore/ beach/ coast

Ⅰ. bank “岸”, 大都指河岸。如:

The twon is on the bank of the river. 那个城镇在河岸上。

Ⅱ. shore “岸”,指海,湖, 大河等的岸,常含有与水相对的意味。如:

The ship stopped a little way off the shore. 这船停在离岸不远的地方。

Ⅲ. beach“海滩、湖滩”, 通常指涨潮时有水,退潮时无水的有沙子或卵石的海滩或湖滩。如:

The children are playing on the beach.孩子们在海滩上玩。

Ⅳ. coast “海岸”仅指沿海之岸,尤指为水域边界。如:

① There are many harbours on the east coast of our land. 我国的东海岸上有许多港口。

6. base on/ be based on

Ⅰ. base on “以……为根据”,如:

① Edison based his ideas on scientific experiment.爱迪生的想法是建立在科学实验的基础上的。

② You should base your opinion on facts.你的意见都要以事实为根据。

Ⅱ. be based on “以……为根据”;“根据……”;“基于……”

① What he said is based on fact. 他所说的话是以事实为根据的。

② The story is based on real life. 那故事是根据现实生活而写的。

③ Some modern languages are based on Latin. 在些现代语言是以拉丁文为基础的。

7. be afraid of sb or sth/ be afraid of doing sth/

be afraid to do sth/ be afraid +that clause

Ⅰ. be afraid of sb or sth. “害怕某人或某事”如

① The man is afraid of nothing.这个人什么都不怕。

② Jenny is afraid of her father, for he is very strict with her. 詹妮害怕她父亲,因为他对她要求很严格。

Ⅱ. be afraid of doing sth. “害怕、担心某事(自己也无法左右的突发事情)发生”如:

I am afraid of falling into the swimming pool.我担心掉进游泳池里去。

Ⅲ. be afraid to do sth. “害怕、不敢做某事”如:

① The bat was afraid to leave his home. 蝙蝠不敢离开家。

② I am afraid to go out at night. 我害怕晚上出去。

Ⅳ. be afraid +that clause. “恐怕”表带歉意的回绝或告知不好的消息。that 常省去。如:

I am afraid (that) I can’t do that today. 恐怕今天我不能做那件事。

Ⅴ. 在日常用语中,I am afraid 常表示歉意或客气,没有恐惧之意。往往相当于I am sorry , 引出不愿发生、可能使对方失望的情况。如:

① I am afraid I don’t agree with you. 恐怕我不会同意你的意见。

② I am afraid (that) you are wrong. 恐怕你错了。

Ⅵ. 口语中,在 I am afraid 之后用so / not,可省去上文提到的内容。如:

①---Has he gone to Guangzhou? 他去广州了吗?

---I’m afraid so.

②---Are we on time? 我们迟到了吗?

---I’m afraid not. 可能没迟到。

8. be amazed at (by) / be amazed to do sth

Ⅰ. be amazed at / by “对……感到惊讶”。如:

① He is amazed at the news. 他对这个消息感到惊讶。

Ⅱ. be amazed to do sth . “对……做某事感到惊讶”. 如:

① I am amazed to see such a bad accident.看到这么严重的事故,我感到很惊讶。

Ⅲ. amaze sb. “使某人惊讶”如:

① The accident amazed me. 这事故使我很惊讶。

[联想]:amazing 形容词,“令人惊异的、了不起的”

amazement 名词。“惊讶”

[注意]:amaze指事件让人大为惊讶,强于surprise; surprise

9. be angry/ get angry

Ⅰ. be / get angry “生某人的气”后面的介词要用with; “因某事而生气”后面的介词要用about / at; be / get angry 后接不定式,这时不定式动词大多为 see 和hear 其不定式同样表生气的原因。如:

① Miss Liu was / got angry with Li Ping because he was late for school today. 刘老师生李平的气是因为他今天迟到了。

② She was / got angry with my behaviour.她对我的行为感到生气。

③ What are you angry about ? 你生什么气?

④ My father was angry at what I said. 我爸对我说的很生气。

Ⅱ. get angry 强调变化,强调由不生气变为生气这一过程;be angry 强调状态,表明正在生气这一状态。

His mother got angry with him when he told her what he had done at school.当他告诉他母亲,他在校的行为时,她生气了。

[联想]:类似的有:

be / become interested in. “对……有兴趣”

be / get married. “结婚”

have / catch a cold “感冒”

be / fall ill “生病” be / fall asleep “入睡、睡着”

10. be good at/ do well in

Ⅰ. be good at / in 意思接近于 do well in. “在(某方面)出色;擅长……”。be good at / in 强调一种笼统情况,而do well in 可表示一种情况,也可指在具体的一次活动中表现出色。

be good at 的反义词组为:be poor (weak) at (in). do well in 的反义词组为:do badly in.如:

① Mary is good at / in maths. = Mary does well in maths. 玛丽数学很好(指情况)。= 玛丽数学学得很好。

② Tom did well in (不宜用be good at.指具体一次)that English test / sports meeting.汤姆在那次英语考试中(运动会中)考得很好(表现出色)。

③ Wu Dong does badly in his lessons. = Wu Dong is weak / poor / at / in his lessons.吴冬功课不好。(指情况)

④ Mei Ying did badly in the high jump 梅英在跳高比赛中成绩不好。(具体一次,不宜替换。)

⑤ Mei Ying is weak / poor in / at high jump.梅英不善于跳高。(指笼统情况)

Ⅱ. do well 和do badly可单独使用,表一种情况;而be good / weak / poor 一定要借助于介词in或at, 强调在某一个方面,才能表达一个完整的意思。如:

He does well / badly at school. 他在学校里功课很好/很差。

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